Beta diversity: habitat dissimilarity, environment convergence, and you can diet

Beta diversity: habitat dissimilarity, environment convergence, and you can diet

Habitat dissimilarity and GuniFrac distances between the organizations were not correlated (Mantel test: nexamples = 15, ngroups = 6, r = ? 0.149, p = 0.553; late dry 2016: nsamples = 15, ngroups = 6, r = 0.008, p = 0.972; early dry 2017: nsamples = 21, ngroups = 7, r = ? 0.154, p = 0.561; late dry 2017: nsamples = 21, ngroups = 7, r = 0.064, p = 0.776; Table S8). The model examining the effects of habitat overlap and diet dissimilarities on groups’ GuniFrac distances was also not significant (LMM II: ? 2 = 3.264, df = 2, p = 0.196, R 2 m/c = 0.08/0.98) (Table S9).

New 18S rRNA gene analysis of your own residential property plants utilized in faecal examples showed that no less than at the down taxonomic accounts, we.age. till the nearest and dearest peak, diet plan didn’t appear to connect with anywhere between-category adaptation in microbiome structure. Despite noticeable between-classification version inside dinner bush compositions, groups’ bacterial microbiome compositions did not echo this type of variations whenever visually inspecting the fresh new respective graphs (Fig. 2A, B). I discover, however, regular dieting habits. In early inactive 12 months both in study many years, faecal examples consisted of the great majority regarding plant life about family Combretaceae and Salicaceae, while inside the later inactive season Fabaceae and Sapindaceae was indeed ate when you look at the greater amounts (Fig. 2B).

Beta assortment: maternal relatedness

We examined the effects of maternal relatedness coefficients on GuniFrac distances among all individuals, i.e. between both, group members and individuals from different groups. The interaction between the relatedness coefficient and group membership (same or different) was not significant (likelihood ratio test comparing the model with and without the interaction: ? 2 = 0.105, df = 1, p = 0.746), which is why we excluded it from the model. The model without the interaction was highly significant (LMM III:? 2 = , df = 1, p < 0.001, R 2 m/c = 0.51/0.92) (Table S10). Maternal relatives had a more similar microbiome than unrelated individuals, and this effect was independent of whether these relatives lived in https://datingranking.net/local-hookup/toronto/ the same group or not (Fig. 3).

GuniFrac ranges of all of the analysis dogs about the maternal relatedness coefficient and you will class subscription. An Remote-controlled regarding 0.25–0.50 makes reference to dyads in which we simply cannot determine whether they is complete- or 50 % of-sisters

Beta diversity: seasonality, intercourse, years, and you can affiliation rates

The model examining correlations of dyadic GuniFrac dissimilarity with seasonality, sex, age classes, and the time two group members spent affiliating was significant (LMM IV: ? 2 = , df = 10, p < 0.001, R 2 m/c = 0.70/0.91) (Tables S11). Bacterial microbiomes of group members increased in similarity across the study period; they were least similar in the early and late dry season 2016 and most similar in the late dry season 2017. Samples of adults differed most from each other, whereas samples among juveniles and infants were more similar (Fig. 4A). Neither sex nor time spent affiliating significantly affected microbiome similarity.

Differences in gut similarity and association networks within groups per age category, female reproductive state, and male dominance. A, C GuniFrac distances between group members of different or same age categories or rank categories of adult group members only. As there is only one dominant male per group, we could not compare two dominant individuals. We did not have enough adult female group members to compare their GuniFrac distances during different reproductive stages. B, D, E ASVs associated with the different age categories, adult female reproductive stages, or rank categories within groups, respectively. The association network was calculated and visualised in the same way as described in Fig. 1. The network for age categories only contains data from the late dry seasons since animals were only considered infants, when they were < 9 months of age. Hence, during the early dry seasons, there were no infants in the population

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